India is a country in Asia with a population of 1.3 billion people. It is known as the largest democracy in the world, with elections taking place in phases over a few days. It is the third largest country in the world. The country has a large economy, with farming employing the most people.

Country Profile

A large yellow star with four smaller 5-point stars to the right of it on a red background.

Population: 1.3 billion
Land mass (square miles): 1,269,220
Capital city: New Delhi
Official languages: Hindi and English
Religion: Mainly Hinduism
Currency: Indian rupee (₹)
Leader: Ram Nath Kovind

Physical geography

India has the second highest number of people of any country in the world with 1.3 billion people. It is the 5th largest country by the amount of land. It is bordered by China, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

A map of India and surrounding countries.

Plants and animals

India is home to a variety of wildlife, including tigers and the Indian elephant. Many species that originate from India are descendants from animals that lived on the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, which India separated from 100 million years ago. Gondwana was a large part of land that was located at the south of the Earth. Forests take up 21% of the land in India. There are many types of plants that grow in India, some of which are used for herbal medicine.



Farming employs more people than any other part of India’s economy. Farms in India grow sugar, fruit, vegetables and nuts. They also make cow’s milk.


Manufacturing is another key part of India’s economy. It employs 22% of those who work. Many things are made in these factories, including textiles, paper, jewellery and medicine.


Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal was built by Shah Jahan in 1632 as a tomb to his favourite wife. It took 22 years to build and is made of white marble. Millions of people go and visit the Taj Mahal each year.

Golden Temple

The Golden Temple is the most important place in the world for Sikhs. There are four entrances, which suggest that all worshippers from all religions are welcome. The building of the temple started in the 16th century, but the gold and marble was added in the 19th century.

The Golden Temple in the evening | Benison P Baby on Wikipedia