Urbanisation (also spelt as “urbanization”) is the process of some or most of the people living in a particular area of countryside moving into cities. There are many different effects, both positive and negative, on the environment, the city’s/country’s wealth (known as economy) and on the health and social well-being of those living in the cities.
Effect on the economy
As more and more people want to move into cities, the prices of property (usually flats) will increase to levels so high that those who have always lived in the local area can no longer afford to.
Effect on the environment
Cities tend to produce heat and keep it, which leads to higher temperatures in cities. This is known as an “urban heat island” meaning it is unbearable during the summer. This is especially true in cities already in a warmer climate anyway.
Effects on health & social well-being
Moving from country to city doesn’t increase your life expectancy. Why? There’s lots of pollution in cities, which causes breathing problems. Also, many people who live in the city may have unhealthy lifestyles. This can lead to diseases such as cancer and heart disease.